WOMEN ACTION FOR PEACE & NON-VIOLENCE
If MEN took War in Their Hands, It's Time WE, The Women, Take Peace in Ours!

Mapping of Crisis & Extremism: Districts in Focus

Assignment Brief

This document is a quick scanning of 25 important districts, from Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit Baltistan, Sindh, Azad Jammu Kashmir, Balochistan, and agencies of Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), for the implementation of a 3-years project "Women Action for Peace and Non-violence" (January 2011 - December 2013). Insan Foundation Trust, Khwendo Kor and UN Women are partners in this project.

IFT is implementing its part of the project in 25 districts. Khwendo Kor (KK) is working on this project in 6 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA. The project has been designed to protect women from the impacts of crisis, prevent sexual and gender based violence and assist communities, women, civil society and government institutions. It is also to strike equality among men and women, especially in peace building processes, at all levels, according to the spirit of the Constitution of Pakistan.

The consultant for this assignment used multiple indicators for selection of the districts in order to facilitate IFT for implementation of the project. Key indicators are as following:

  • Accessibility and Availability of Civil Structure, Especially Police, Development Authorities and District Governments
    In selection of the districts, safety and security of the office staff and their ability to work in order to achieve objectives of the project were paramount sub-indicators. Districts where IFT can travel to and work with NGOs and where we have some governance systems in place were therefore given the top priority.
  • Presence of UN Women's Partners
    IFT's second priority is working with UN Women's partners so that synergies could be built and efforts be consolidated. However, IFT's own linkages also mattered in this selection.
  • Potential/Evidence of Ethnic and Religious Conflict
    Third main indicator used for selection of the districts is security level yellow, i.e., where things are not in order completely and we have a history, potential threat or any evidence of ethnic and/or sectarian conflicts, or proximity with Pak-India border.
  • History/Cases of Sexual and Gender-based Violence (SGBV) against Women
    Instances/data on sexual and gender-based violence against women also served for IFT as one of the indicators in selection of the 25 districts. One of the objectives of the project "Women Action for Peace Non-Violence" is to prevent SGBV and protection of women against it.
  • Rich-Poor Disparity Factor
    Lack of economic opportunities has the inherent ability to fan violence. Therefore, IFT has taken the rich-poor disparity also in focus while trying to root its work under the project "Women Action for Peace and Non-Violence".

The document primarily has two parts, in each section. The first part of each section is about the overall situation of the selected provinces and the FATA where IFT has decided to anchor its work at. The second part of the each section gives us insight into the districts, the reasons why IFT wants to work there and some relevant on Union Councils (annexure).

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Punjab

Punjab is the second largest province in area after Balochistan, spreading over 205,344 kms, and the largest in population with 73.6 million. It is the classic example of rich-poor divide where 68.7 percent people live in rural areas - who are indiscriminately have-nots.

At least 2,690 incidents of violence against women were reported in 36 districts of Punjab from January to June 2010 and Lahore took the lead with 458 such cases, said data available with Pakistan Today.

The data added that other ten districts of the Punjab where intensity of violence remained high were Faisalabad with 393 cases, Sargodha with 161, Sheikhupura 157, Rawalpindi 139, Okara 134, Kasur 116, Sialkot 114, Sahiwal 88, Gujranwala 87, Jhang 76 and Multan 71 cases.

Around 912 cases of abduction, 377 of rape and 373 cases of murder were reported out of the said cases while only 2,349 cases were registered in the respective police stations out of 2,690 cases, the data stated.

The information further revealed that around 1,539 cases were registered in rural areas while the remaining occurred in urban areas of the Punjab during this tenure.

Out of the total victimized women, 1,557 women were unmarried, 1,239 were married, 49 were widows and 41 were divorcees, the data said adding that 6 women were victimized in the province of Punjab on daily basis while 183 incidents of abduction were occurred in the district Lahore, 180 in Faisalabad, 69 in Sheikhupura and 68 cases in Sargodha and Rawalpindi district. Around 114 women became the target of violence over domestic dispute and 113 were murdered over allegedly illicit relations and in 115 cases, the accused were husbands, the data further stated.

http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/01/lahore-tops-violence-against-women-in-punjab/

It is since three decades this land of rich Sufi Culture is on the retreat and the province is gripped by religious extremism, intolerance and the violent forms of sectarian conflicts. Local Panchayats dictate their own terms in its Southern parts and it was such a Panchayat that accorded sexual and gender based violence against Mukhtaraan Mai (Muzaffar Garh).

It is quite some time that Punjab has emerged as a recruitment center for militants. Many handlers who were caught by the security agencies have admitted to have recruited young children. Currently, especially the religious seminaries, of the province are being screened. It is however important to note that crime against women is all time high and women are target of all forms of sexual and gender based violence here.

Overall literacy rate in Punjab is 46.6 percent. Female literacy rate 35.1 percent and males 64.9 percent. It has 37 districts run by their respective governments. It is the most developed, populous and prosperous province of Pakistan and Lahore is its Capital.

Linguistic distribution of the Punjab province in percentage is: Punjabi (75.23), Saraiki (17.36), Urdu (4.51), Pashto (1.16), Balochi (0.66), Sindhi (0.13) others (0.95). The population of Punjab (Pakistan) is estimated to be between 97.21 percent Muslim with a Sunni Hanafi majority and Shia Ithna 'ashariyah minority. The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2.31 percent of the total provincial population. Other minorities include Ahmedi, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis and Bahai. It has 150 National Assembly constituencies. Almost all sorts of major and minor criminal incidents happen in the province of Punjab.

Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punjab,_Pakistan
  • http://alaiwah.wordpress.com/2010/04/12/crimes-in-the-punjab-on-the-rise/
  • http://thenews.jang.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=166372&Cat=6&dt=3/9/2009
  • http://www.punjabpolice.gov.pk/crimestatistics

    District Selection Indicators
    Punjab Lahore Faisalabad Kasur Jhang Chiniot Attock Bhakkar
    Accessibility & Availability of Civil Structure Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    Presence of UN Women's & WPP Partners Y Y N N N Y N
    Potential Risk/Evidence of Ethnic & Religious Conflict Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    History/Cases of SGBV Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    IFT's Links Y Y          
    Rich-Poor Disparity Factor Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
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    1-     Lahore

    Lahore is city where instances of SGBV, rich poor disparity, proximity of India and its status of being headquarter of Punjab's all main departments and a hub of civil society organizations, especially NGOs and media, make it a natural selection for IFT to work under the project "Women Action for Peace and Non-Violence." Lahore is the provincial capital of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan. It is situated approximately 25 kilometers from Wahga border crossing and is 32 kilometers from the Indian city of Amritsar. It is a centre of cultural heritage and academics. Its population is about 10 million and its area is about 400 kilometers.

    Horrendous massacre of 86 Ahmadis of the Ahmadiyya Community in Lahore, in 2010, attempts of the locals to burn a Church, at Badami Bagh, Lahore, allegedly to take revenge of burning of pages of Holy Quran, on March 22, 2011, the killing of five people in a suicide attack on a Shiat mosque, on October 10, 2011, and a suicide bombing at a Chehlum procession that left at least 13 people dead and injured dozen when a suicide bomber, said to be a teenager, blew himself up at the security check post, are some blatant incidents that serve as barometer of the prevalent extremism here. Similarly, among the 2,690 incidents of violence against women reported in 36 districts of Punjab, from January to June 2010 Lahore took the lead with 458 such cases.

    Punjabi is the widely spoken language here in Lahore. Muslims are about 94 percent of the total population of the city and the rest are Christians, Hindus and Bahais. It is the second most literate district in Punjab with a literacy rate of 74 percent. Females' literacy rate in Lahore is 59.68 percent. There are 13 NA seats and 26 PA seats. About 82 percent population of the city is urban. It is divided into nine towns and has district government system. Lahore witnessed the worst year in its history in terms of terrorist attacks. Shrines, minority sects and ethnic groups were particularly targeted. According to data available with Lahore city administration, more than 250 people were killed in as many as 18 terrorist activities in 2010, compared to 115 deaths in terrorist attacks in 2009. Street crime, car lifting had also gone high in 2010.

    Lahore comprises of following towns and cantonment area:

    1.  Ravi Town
    2.  Shalimar Town
    3.  Wagah Town
    4.  Aziz Bhatti Town
    5.  Data Gunj Bakhsh Town
    6.  Gulberg Town
    7.  Samanabad Town
    8.  Iqbal Town
    9.  Nishtar Town
    10.  Lahore Cantonment

    Data Sources

  • http://tribune.com.pk/story/98236/tri-city-crime-comparison-terrorism-was-worst-in-lahore-but-karachi-tops-the-list-for-murder/
  • www.wikipidia.com
  • http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006%5C12%5C25%5Cstory_25-12-2006_pg13_4
  • http://www.pu.edu.pk/IOC/scientific_research/PDF-FILES/Paper%209.pdf
  • http://khaledfaroqi.wordpress.com/2011/01/25/nawaz-sharif-made-lahore-and-punjab-crime-capital-of-asia/
  • http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/01/lahore-tops-violence-against-women-in-punjab/

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    2-     Faisalabad

    Faisalabad that is a textile industrial center ranks second in the cases of violence against women with 393 out of the total 2690 reported cases in 2010. It is also the third largest city of Pakistan. It has a population of about 5.4 million. Population residing within the municipal limits is estimated to be 2.6 million. The incidents of sexual and gender based violence are feared to be among the highest in the district. However, since most of Faisalabad is semi urban and news does not reach media, ratio of such crime remains uncovered.

    History of Faisalabad is traced back partly to one century -various tribes of the Punjab settled here during colonization of "Sandal Bar". The politics in Faisalabad division, after influx of refugees from Eastern Punjab, revolves round an axis of tribalism. During the election of 1970 a strong political party put an end to this trend but nonparty election of 1985 played central role in fomenting the sentiment of tribal attachment.

    Literacy rate in Faisalabad is 51.9 percent. Females' literacy rate in this district is 42.16 percent. It has an area of 1.44 million acres and has 11 National Assembly constituencies. Crimes committed in the district include, disputes over lands, murder, decioty and violence against women. Since religious element is comparative strong in this district therefore minorities particularly Ahmedis become target of hate speech and discrimination. It is obvious from an incident in 2010 when some people, for example, were reported handing out pamphlets that urged people to boycott businesses owned by Ahmedis. A cleric even issued edicts justifying robbery and violence against Ahmedis (in contravention to spirit of the Constitution of Pakistan and violation of Pakistan Penal Code Article 153). In February 2010, hundreds of protestors set ablaze a police station and dozens of vehicles in the area following a clash between two groups, during an Eid Milad-un-Nabi procession. The clash erupted after one of the groups opened fire on an Eid Milad-un-Nabi procession, leaving three people injured and police could arrest around 15 people.

    Administratively, Faisalabad is divided into eight towns. These are as following:

    1.  Lyallpur Town
    2.  Madina Town
    3.  Jinnah Town
    4.  Iqbal Town
    5.  Chak Jhumra Town
    6.  Jaranwala Town
    7.  Samundri Town and
    8.  Tandlianwala Town

    Data Sources

  • http://www.google.com.pk/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=murders+in+faisalabad&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=
  • http://www.google.com.pk/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=crime+in+faisalabad&rlz=1R2SNYR_enPK423&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=
  • http://www.paktribune.com/news/index.shtml?179917
  • http://www.faisalabadpolice.gov.pk/userPage.aspx?p=About_Faisalabad
  • http://www.faisalabadpolice.gov.pk/userPage.aspx?p=Faisalabad_Most_Wanted
  • http://www.faisalabad.gov.pk/
  • http://archives.dawn.com/2003/01/07/nat9.htm
  • http://tribune.com.pk/story/7562/intolerance-and-bigotry/
  • http://alertpak.wordpress.com/2010/02/28/more-than-25-people-arrested-after-faisalabad-clashes/

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    3-     Kasur

    Kasur district is one of the oldest cities in Pakistan. It is located adjacent to the border of Ganda Singh Wala between Pakistan and India. It is surrounded at East and South by India. The total area of the district is 3,995 square kilometers. It has urban and rural population, divided in four Tehsils, including Chunian, Kasur, Pattoki and Kot Radha Kishen. There are obviously multiple factors involved in selection of this district.

    Kasur flashed in the news in 2009 when on June 30, a cleric in Kasur district's Bahmaniwala village used a mosque loudspeaker to announce a call to attack Christians that resulted in more than 500 Muslims ransacking and looting at least 110 houses in the district. Chief Minister of the Punjab Shahbaz Sharif ordered the arrest of six Muslim extremists, including suspected mastermind Qari Latif. Apart from religious intolerance, sexual and gender-based violence is also present at Kasur. For example, in 2009, there were at least 116 cases of violence registered.

    According to the 1998 census, the total population of Kasur is 2,376,000. Of this 95.4 percent are Muslims, 4.4 percent are Christians while the rest are Ahmadis and Hindus. About 22.78 populations live in the urban areas.

    Kasur has 141 union councils. It is ranks among the nine districts with lowest literacy rates in Punjab. Its overall literacy rate is about 23.4 percent. Literacy rate among females is 36.2 percent and male 47.6 percent.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasur
  • http://www.kasur.org/edu_general.htm
  • http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/pakistan-news/National/17-Apr-2011/Son-kills-father-over-monetary-dispute
  • http://pakistancriminalrecords.com/2010/04/21/kasur-men-murder-3-sisters-over-land-row/
  • http://www.compassdirect.org/english/country/pakistan/9161

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    4-     Jhang

    Jhang is situated on the east bank of the Chenab River and is known for severe ethnic conflicts in the past and strained situation even today. "The Shia-Sunni conflict in this district is primarily a manifestation of the socio-economic changes at the grassroots level, which have given rise to political tensions among different classes of society. This class conflict invariably finds an anti-Shia expression largely because most of the leading feudal lords in the district happen to be Shia. For these Shia feudal lords, their land and peasantry serve as a source of power. In addition, they draw power from their contacts with the leading politicians and bureaucrats of the country. Most importantly, however, their power originates from the backwardness of the majority of the population in their respective areas of influence. In this situation, the newly emerging middle classes of the society, who have political aspirations, find it politically expedient to use the anti-Shia idiom, which has the potential to mobilize a Sunni faction in their support". This particular scenario makes Jhang a volatile place for safety and security of women and children.

    Jhang is currently divided into four Tehsils and has an area of 3397 square kilometers. Its tehsils are Ahmedpur Sial, Atharahazari, Shorkot and Jhang. Its population is about 3.5 million out of which about 23 percent lives in urban areas.

    Punjabi is the native language of Jhang. Overall literacy rate of Jhang is 37.1 percent. Literacy rate among females is 21.43 percent. In 2010, 76 women are reported to be the target of sexual and gender based violence in Jhang.

    There is a sizable Christian minority also living in this district. Crimes committed in the district include, murder, decoity, land disputes and violence against women.

    Data Sources

  • http://www.scribd.com/doc/52476280/19/Conclusion
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jhang_District
  • http://www.safedafed.org/aser/document/aser/map/Jhang.pdf
  • http://www.google.com.pk/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=crimes+in+Jhang+&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=

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    5-     Chiniot

    District Chiniot is an idiom of hate speech because of the thick presence of religious minority, Ahmedis, (at Rabwah city), and intolerance demonstrated by religious clergy and Muslim population towards them. Divided in three tehsils, Bhawana, Lalian and Chiniot, it is a flashpoint. Any incident that involves Ahmadis sends a tremor of incidents of persecution and torture across Pakistan with its epicenter at Rabwah city. In such circumstances, women are not safe. Incidents like the one that took place on March 11, 2009, tell us about the depth of neglect meted out to the Ahmedis when a van transporting 27 girls from Rabwah from their various colleges in Chiniot was attacked and stones and bricks were pelted at the van. The incident was reported to police but no action was taken.

    It is important to note that Rabwah has been the headquarters of the Ahmadiyya community since September 20, 1948, after the original headquarters of Qadian moved to India following the creation of Pakistan in 1947. As a result, the vast majority of inhabitants belonging to the Ahmadiyya community migrated from India to Pakistan. After the migration, the Ahmadiyya community bought the area and settled in Rabwah.

    Chiniot is located on left bank of the Chenab River on the Sargodha to Faisalabad road. Its population is estimated to be 1.5 million out of which about 0.2 million is urban. Chiniot is also famous for its furniture industry. Earlier, Chiniot was a tehsil of District Jhang but it was in February 2009 when it was given the status of district.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabwah
  • http://www.tmachiniot.com/

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    6-     Attock

    Attock is situated on the bank of Indus River. The estimated population of the district is 1.58 million out of which 21 percent is urban. Attock produces one-third of Pakistan’s oil. It is just 10 kilometers away from the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra.

    Attock is making some headlines for increasing violence against women and being host of IDPs who were dislocated following the military operation against the insurgents in 2009.

    In a report published on 20 March 2011, police record of the district show that cases of violence against women, particularly burn attacks and honour killings, have been on the rise in this backward district for the last couple of years.

    Attock has three National Assembly constituencies. Most of the population of the district is engaged in agriculture. Clans and tribes play an important role in electoral politics. Languages spoken in the district are Pushto and Hindko while Urdu is also spoken and understood in the district. It has six Tehsils and four National Assembly constituencies. Its area is about 6857 Square Kilometers. Crimes including decoity, murder, kidnapping, rape, robberies and thefts are normally committed in the district. Literacy rate in Attock is 49.3 percent and this rate among females is 31.99 percent.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attock_District
  • http://www.attockpolice.gov.pk/comparative_crime.asp
  • http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ATTOCK/message/3401

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    7-     Bhakkar

    Bhakkar is the principal city of Bhakkar District. It lies on the left bank of the river Indus. It spreads over an area of 2,427 square kilometres with a population of 424,488 (as per DCR 1998). It consists of four Teshils including Bhakkar, Darya Khan, Kaloor Kot and Mankera.

    In 2009, Punjab government declared Bhakkar district a ‘Red Zone’, following apprehensions that the Taliban, under attack in South Waziristan, could enter Punjab from abandon banks of River Indus. Bhakkar in fact shares a natural boundary with D.I. Khan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and there are several crossing points on the Indus River where folks cross the river through ferryboat service and easily enter into the both provinces within 30 minutes. In any situation when extremists take over, it women who become the first target as it is evident in the case of Swat before military operation began there in May 2009. Therefore, in the context of militancy, Bhakkar is very important. A little stock taking may be relevant here in terms of a reference of a case. It happened so that in 2008 a local person hired a suicide bomber from Wanna to kill his friend, PML-N MNA Rashid Akbar Niwani, on a business dispute. Unidentified officials in the Crime Investigation Department of Punjab, who probed the case, disclosed that they arrested five people involved. Reportedly, 26 people were killed in that incident that took place on August 6. This incident shows that people might access the militants from this district and vice versa and that the militants, who claim to fight for Islam, have their own mercenary interests.

    Data Sources

  • http://www.forumpakistan.com/bhakkar-t285.html#ixzz1O901XekC
  • http://www.forumpakistan.com/bhakkar-t285.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhakkar
  • http://tmabhakkar.com/CO-units.html
  • http://www.thememriblog.org/urdupashtu/blog_personal/en/12378.htm

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    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), previously known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It is located in the north-west of the country. It borders from the north-west to Afghanistan, Kashmir to the east side and Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA) to the west.
    Gender Gap in Literacy
      Overall Male Female Relative
    Abbotabad
    57 75 39 54
    Haripur
    51 69 34 54
    Peshwar
    42 56 26 41
    Kohat
    44 65 23 37
    Malakand
    40 55 23 39
    Mansehra
    36 51 23 48
    Nowshera
    43 61 23 34
    Chitral
    40 58 22 37
    Mardan
    36 54 18 32
    Swabi
    36 54 18 34
    Karak
    42 68 18 29
    D.I. Khan
    31 43 18 37
    Charsadda
    31 47 14 28
    Swat
    29 43 13 29
    Lower Dir
    30 49 12 27
    Bannu
    32 51 12 22
    Hangu
    31 53 10 20
    Laki Marwat
    30 50 9 17
    Tank
    26 42 9 19
    Buner
    23 38 8 21
    Upper Dir
    21 36 6 17
    Shangla
    15 25 4 14
    Kohistan
    11 17 3 13
    Battagram
    18 29 6 21
    KP
    35 51 19 35

    KP continues to attract global attention for about three decades, from Soviet invasion on Afghanistan in 1979, migration of about two million Afghan refugees to Pakistan, woes of women and children in iron-clad cultural restrictions and to the nabbing of Osama Bin Laden on May 2, 2010, from one its districts, Abbottabad. The story of the destruction of this province particularly and that of Pakistan generally started off with training of thousands of Mujahidin. This story is taking everyday a new turn in terrorism attacks rattling every nook and corner of the country. Pakistan followed the policy of seeking strategic depth in Afghanistan and since then thousands of citizens have lost their lives, country has almost lost our chances to compete in the international market of trade and is totally engulfed in extremism. Of course, Pakistan army itself has suffered immense loss because it is today a main target of local and international militants’ networks.

    The overall scenario in KP is inimical towards women generally. Traditionally, this province has not been very supportive to women’s cause. Even before the militancy and the flood related impacts on the lives of the people here, women’s access to health and education, their mobility and social mobility, their participation in social and political activities at par with men and other indicators including the customary crimes like Swara have been speaking for themselves. It is province believed to be close to religion but at the same time a corridor for smuggling of weapons and heroin. Swara is completely Un-Islamic custom but at the same time it exists. In last six months of 2010, a total of 308 cases of violence against women (VAW) were reported here. Most victims of violence remained under 18 as 38 cases of teenage victims. There were 35 victims in the 19 to 36 age group, and 10 victims aged 37 and over. The highest prevalence of violent cases was in Peshawar. More than 112 cases were reported in Peshawar, whereas 46 cases in Mardan, 21 in Swabi, 15 in Charsadda, 15 in Kohat, 13 in Haripur, 12 in Nowshera, 11 cases each in Swat and Manshera, 10 in Bannu, and 9 cases in D.I Khan. No case of violence against women was reported from Lakki Marwat, Kohistan and Tank districts, or the tribal areas, including Khurram, Bajuar, North and South Waziristan agencies. However, this report is merely a tip of the iceberg.

    Administratively, KP comprises of three major administrative parts. The one part is settled area, the second is known as Provincially Administrated Tribal Area (PATA) and the third part is Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA) which comprises of seven tribal agencies and six Frontier Regions.

    According to 1998 census, the total population of KP is 17,735,912 (urban 2,994,084 rural 14,741,828). The total literacy rate in the province in 2008 is 49.9 percent. The main ethnic group in the province is the Pashtuns; other smaller ethnic groups include Hazarewals and Chitralis. The largest city and provincial capital is Peshawar and Pashto is the most spoken language. This is followed by Hindko. The Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is unicameral and consists of 124 seats of which 2% are reserved for non-Muslims and 17% for women only. The crime cases are on the peak in the province which includes property dispute, harassment cases, kidnapping, murder, and suicidal attacks.

    Data Sources

  • http://investinpakistan.pk/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=254&Itemid=175
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khyber_Pakhtunkhwa
  • http://www.khyberpakhtunkhwa.gov.pk/Departments/BOS/nwfpdev-statis-popu-tab-161.php
  • http://pakistancriminalrecords.com/tag/peshawar/
  • http://www.sappk.org/publications/profiles/Profile_DI_Khan.pdf
  • http://tribune.com.pk/story/102515/violence-against-women-over-300-cases-reported-in-six-months/

    District Selection Indicators
    KP Mardan D.I. Khan Swat Karak Haripur Nowshera Charsadda Chitral
    Accessibility & Availability of Civil Structure Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    Presence of UN Women's & WPP Partners Y Y Y Y N N Y N
    Potential Risk/Evidence of Ethnic & Religious Conflict Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    History/Cases of SGBV Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    IFT's Links Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    Rich-Poor Disparity Factor Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
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    1-     Mardan

    Mardan is the district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is bounded on the north by district Buner and Malakand Protected Area. According to 1998 census its total population is 1,460,100. Mardan is one of the key districts where war on terror has been carried out intensively.

    In May 2009, military operation in Swat led to an immense exodus of population from Swat to Swabi and Mardan. These districts together hosted over 3 million IDPs. Women and children were among the worst affected citizens because traditionally women in KP remain indoors and have very limited exposure of the outside world. This traditional barrier impacted women very badly. Then under the provincial government’s strategy of giving full support to anti-militants measures, several search operations were conducted from time to time by police and other law-enforcement agencies in various suspected areas of this district, but peace is still a far cry. The operations also sent waves of fear among women and children.

    The areas where the search operations were carried out included Sawaldair, Matha, Shamozai, Babozai, Kadao, Chora, Bashakhale, Jamal Gari, Speenkai, Jabbar and Guli Bagh of Katlang tehsil. Similar search was also conducted in Choora, Narshik, Tooth Killy, Kaki and other adjacent areas. After these search operations, the law-enforcement agencies announced that they had cleared all the suspected areas from militants and their supporters. Unfortunately, the recent attacks on security forces and police and presence of militants in different parts of Mardan city have not only proved the official claims wrong, but also spread a wave of panic among the citizens.

    In some major militant attacks in the district, a suicide bomber blew himself up in May 2008, killing 11 army men and civilians and injuring scores of others. In July 2010, five militants were killed in a botched attack on a paramilitary training centre in Mardan. In recent attacks, at least 28 army personnel were killed and 40 others injured when a teenage boy blew himself up at the Punjab Regiment Centre on February 10. Besides, on March 1, two unidentified militants hurled hand grenades at girl students of Lundkhawar Girls Degree College during a function at the college, leaving 35 of them badly injured. The attackers used grenades and automatic weapons. The students claimed the teachers had been receiving threats from militants which the college administration did not take seriously. Before this, in February, a militants destroyed a CD shops market by a bomb, in Cahto Chowk. According to reports, an improvised explosive device was planted in the market. On March 14, Hoti police station SHO Mazhar Shah and ASI Mukhtiyar Khan were killed when militants attacked them in Sadullah Kothay area on the outskirts of the city.

    Majority of the population at Mardan (1164972) live rural areas while those live in urban areas are 295,128. Literacy rate in urban parts of the district is 48.27 percent and that of the rural is 33 %. Muslims are 99 percent of the total population of the district while the minorities include Christian, Ahmadis and Hindus. Majority of the people in Mardan speak Pashtu. The district is administratively subdivided into three Tehsils. Crimes including gambling, sale of narcotics and wines, Ariel firing and show of weapons are increasing in urban areas of the district.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mardan_District
  • www.sappk.org/publications/profiles/Profile_Mardan.pdf
  • http://www.smeda.org/downloads/Districts_Profile_Mardan.pdf
  • http://www.sabawoon.com/index.php?page=TheMardanReport_March
  • http://pakistancriminalrecords.com/tag/mardan
  • http://www.dawn.com/2011/03/27/peace-in-mardan-elusive-despite-search-operations.html
  • http://oneresponse.info/Countries/Pakistan/publicdocuments/SavetheChildrenRapidAssessmenNWFP.pdf
  • Extremism Watch, Jinnah Institute

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    2-     Dera Ismail Khan

    Dera Ismail Khan is bounded on the east by the Mianwali and Bhakkar districts of Punjab, to the southwest by South Waziristan district, and to the northwest by Tank and Lakki Marwat districts. The rise of militancy in South Waziristan had fallout in neighboring Tank and D I Khan, which were once a single district.

    D.I. Khan’s another introduction is also sectarian violence between Sunnis and Shiites and the involvement of Sepa Sehaba that is a banned religious outfit. The sectarian killings used to happen in D.I. Khan so often here that these had become almost a routine. “Assassins used to drive up, fire a hail of bullets and melt into shadows as their victims bled to death”. Small factions of Taliban also gained their space here and aggravated the situation further. Then Pakistan military launched operations here in 2009 and established its control. Cell phone services remained suspended here until May 2011.

    The conditions of insecurity at D.I. Khan have pushed a large portion of population, especially those who have been associated with agriculture and traditional sources of earning in rural areas, in hot waters. They are left stranded as far as their livelihood sources are concerned. This factor contributes substantial rise in poverty. The situation is particularly affecting the landless and the farmers with small land holdings and rural workers. The women farmers and tillers belonging to religious minorities are the worst affected as they were solely dependent on traditional modes of earning.

    Propagated at the national annual growth rate, the population of D.I. Khan is estimated to be 1,018,796 in 2007. That gives a population density of just 115.4 souls per square kilometer, which is third lowest in NWFP province with Peshawar leading as the most dense districts (1,606 persons/sq km) and Chitral being the thinnest (21 persons per square kilometer). The entire northern NWFP is thinly populated due to rough terrain and inaccessible mountains. As emerged from the 1998 census the population of district is predominantly Muslim - 99.3 per cent. There are few religious minority groups in KP as the average Muslim percentage in provincial population stands at 99.5 per cent. It means that one in 200 persons of KP believes in a religion other than Islam. Peshawar hosts the biggest population of religious minorities, who make 1.3 per cent of the district's total population. Muslim population in all other districts is more than 99 per cent. In real numbers there were only 1,676 Christians, 1,127 Ahmedis and 441 Hindus in Dera Ismail Khan in 1998. An overwhelming majority of the tiny minority of Christians (83 per cent) and Hindus (78 per cent) lives in DI Khan city. However, Ahmedis are scattered in rural areas of Dera and Paharpur tehsil.

    D. I. Khan t is subdivided into three Tehsils and is represented in the Provincial Assembly by five elected MPs and two in the National Assembly of Pakistan. According to the census of 1998, its total population is 852,995. The rural and urban population of the district is 727,188 and 125,807 respectively. Saraiki is spoken as the main language while Pushto is spoken as a second language.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dera_Ismail_Khan_District
  • www.sappk.org/publications/profiles/Profile_D.I.Khan.pdf
  • http://pakistancriminalrecords.com/tag/d-i-khan/
  • http://jafrianews.com/2011/02/24/government-failure-as-target-killing-in-d-i-khan-continues/
  • http://www.wasaib.com/forum/d-i-khan-suffer-from-violence-the-news.html
  • http://www.deraismailkhan.org/sectarian-killing-in-dera-ismail-khan.html
  • http://oneresponse.info/Countries/Pakistan/publicdocuments/SavetheChildrenRapidAssessmenNWFP.pdf

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    3-     Swat

    Swat is an administrative district in the KP. The valley is cleared after a two years’ operation of Pakistani military, since May 2009, to crush militants.

    The militants ran the show in Swat under the command of the son-in-law of Maulana Sufi Mohammad, of Malakand, the Maulana Fazl-ul-Lah. This mullah used to give sermons on an illegal radio station in which he warned people of worse consequences if they did not stop sending their girl children to schools. Gradually, amidst slumber of the security agencies or connivance of the some officials, this Mullah acquired such strength in a little time that Swat started flashing in the international headlines. Breaking the back of women’s education was this Mullah’s strategy to change the mindsets. His men blew about 180 girls schools during his short-lived and subsequent militancy. This destruction resulted into thousands of female teachers without a source of income and some 80,000 female students being pushed out of the education system. However, it was not ‘only’ women’s education and livelihood that were at stake during his control. Women could also no longer venture outside their homes without a male relative (definitely a mehram) and it was mandatory for couples to carry their nikah-namaas or they were definitely asking for trouble. He also announced that families with unmarried females should come forward in mosques so that the women/girls may be married off – to the Taliban. Or else, they were to be forcibly married (read raped).

    The crises multiplied when the abandoned wives of Taliban neither had Watan Card nor any NADRA card. Most of the Taliban were either killed or arrested. Estimated 80 girls were married to Taliban during their rule in the valley at a collective wedding ceremony. All of them are now suffering from mental trauma and anxiety. The fear of rape was running high among women during and after clashes. Some women were even to kill themselves in case the militants entered their homes.

    Militancy has not been the only problem for the wretched Swat. In October 2010, Pakistan generally and Swat particularly witnessed the worst flood of its history since 1947. Estimated 150,000 people were directly affected by the floods in the valley alone. Approximately 14,000 houses and 22 schools were completely washed out. This situation obviously impacted women in Swat who were again in the danger of being sexually abused and socially and economically becoming pauper.

    Ethically, Swat inhabits Pakhtuns, Yusufzais, Kohistanis, Gujars, and Awans. The district is sub divided in two Tehsils, Matta and Swat which are further sub divided into 65 union councils. As far as its political set up is concerned, it has two National and seven Provincial Assembly constituencies.

    According to the 1998’s census, the district’s population is 1,257,602 of which 13.83 percent lives in urban and 86.17 percent in rural area. Societal norms in Swat are very traditional and conservative. Its literacy rate is 28.75 percent of which 43.16 and 13.45 percent is for males and females respectively. It had been a hideout of militants against whom the government launched a military operation that now is going on in other parts of FATA. It is a post conflict district in the province. Military operation had badly affected the lives of Swat residents and caused their displacement.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swat,_Pakistan
  • http://cppr.edu.pk/files/Swat_Report.pdf
  • http://pakistancriminalrecords.com/tag/swat-district/
  • http://womenagainstshariah.blogspot.com/2009/02/whither-swats-women.html
  • http://www.dawn.com/2010/12/10/women-bear-the-brunt-of-conflict-in-swat.html

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    4-     Karak

    Karak is situated to the south of Kohat District and on the north side of Bannu and Lakki Marwat districts on the main Indus Highway between Peshawar and Karachi. According to the 1998’s census its population was 430,796 out of which 27,893 was urban and 402,903 rural.

    Karak features very low on women’s mobility, education and health indicators, like other districts in KP. It also hosted hundreds of families in June 25 2009 from the Frontier region Bannu. The IDPs were settled in government schools.

    Karak has seen little Taliban violence, yet the Taliban maintained a presence in the district. The last major attack in Karak took place in February 2010, not long ago. In that attack, a suicide bomber targeted a police station, killing three policemen and leveling the station and a mosque. Since this district borders the Taliban-controlled tribal agency of North Waziristan, as well as the Taliban insurgency-hit districts of Hangu, Bannu, and Kohat, from 2005 the Taliban spillover has affected it. The area is still considered yellow in security level alert. Even this year, on February 5, 2011, Pakistani Taliban executed four men whom they had accused of "spying for Indian and Jewish intelligence agencies". This incident explains two things. One, the law and order is weak and militants are on the loose. Two, the militants apparently have some support from within the local administration and that’s why no action was reported on the incident.

    Khattak is a main tribe in the district where Pushto is spoken as main language. Literacy rate for urban areas of the district is 94.84 percent 81.7 percent in rural areas. The district is administratively subdivided into three Tehsils. One member in the National and two in the Provincial Assembly represent the district. The crimes including abduction, car lifting, murder, suicide attacks has increased in the district in 2010.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karak_District
  • http://www.dawn.com/2011/03/02/woman-accuses-police-of-abducting-daughter.html
  • pakistancriminalrecords.com/tag/karak-district
  • http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2011/02/taliban_execute_4_sp.php
  • http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/28-Feb-2010/5-killed-in-Karak-suicide-blast
  • http://ftpapp.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=79952&Itemid=38

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    5-     Haripur

    Haripur is located in Hazara division and its total population, according to 1998 census, was 692,228 out of which 82,735 was urban and 609,493 rural. It shows that the district is largely rural in its character.

    As emerged from the 1998 census the population of district is predominantly Muslim (99.6 per cent). There are very few believers of other faiths in KP as a whole as 99.5 per cent inhabitants here are Muslims. Peshawar hosts the highest number of religious minorities, who make 1.3 per cent of its total population. Muslim population in all other districts is more than 99 per cent. In real numbers only 798 Christians, 425 Ahmedis and 12 Hindus were counted in the 1998 census in the entire district of Haripur. The religion of 1,318 people was not specified. Most of the Christians (77 percent) live in the rural Ghazi tehsil. Ahmedis are scattered in the rural areas of Haripur and Ghazi tehsils.

    Haripur tops the province in almost all the health and education related indicators. This overall affluence may be a factor behind higher female to male population ratio. But perhaps the more important factor is the migration of adult males for economic reasons. Service in security forces is a major source of livelihood in the area and adult males perform duties in faraway places. This has reduced the number of males in this district.

    The overall statistics of Haripur are misleading in fact. Better performance in education and health sector don’t necessarily mean that condition and position of women is also reciprocal at Haripur at the moment. It is one of the districts where prevalence of forced marriage is high because of the particular imbalance between the male and female population, its rural character and issues like honor. Different tribes like Ghakhar, Tareen, Utmanzai, Tahirkheli, Awans, Gujar, Tanoli, Saadat Jadun, Dilazak, Turk, Abbasi,and Painda Khanis reside here.

    Prominent language spoken in Haripur is Hindko. Urdu and other like Gojri, Potohari, Pashto and Pahaari are also spoken.

    Haripur is divided into three Tehsils which are subdivided into a total of 44 Union Councils. The district is presently represented in the provincial assembly by four elected MPAs one member in the National Assembly. Serious crimes reported in the district in 2010 are murder, robbery, kidnapping, suicide, car-lifting, bomb blasts and smuggling. Other social crimes reported in the district are domestic violence against women, vani, honor killing and harassment.

    Data Sources

  • http://www.sungi.org/situation_analysis_of_district_haripur.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haripur_District
  • www.sungi.org/custom.../HR%20Monior%20Jan-June%202010a.pdf
  • http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache

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    6-     Nowshera

    Nowshera is a prominent district of KP. It is situated to the west by Peshawar, to the northwest by Charsadda and Mardan, to the east by Swabi and to the Southeast by Attock districts.

    Nowshera stands with most of its houses built anew following the devastating flood of 2010. It is estimated that about 80% of Nowshera was damaged by heavy floods that left a half-million inhabitants homeless. Devastations of flood and heavy rains here were beyond comparison and most of the areas located on bank side of river Kabul were badly affected. Estimated 40 per cent houses, animals, household items and other belongings were completely swept away, around 10,000 houses were totally destroyed and about 40,000 were partially damaged. The badly affected areas were Mohib Banda, Dheri Mian Ishaq, Tetaray, Khush Maqam, Jabba, Nowshera Kalan, Zakhel Payan, Bara Banda, Amankot, Hakeem Abad, Dag Besood. It was a doomsday generally. However, women and children as usual suffered the most here because of their inability to swim. Another report tells us that only in one market, Gul Market, on the main GT Road, the business community suffered a loss of Rs 3 billion (US $35m) in damage to their Eid garments stocks. The immensity of the damage just at one place indicates how badly the economic activity was impacted and its indirect impact on the lives of women and children.

    Law and order situation in Nowshera has also not been very good in recent times. On June 12, 2009, for example, four persons were killed and more than 100 hurt in a suicide blast in Nowshera supply depot mosque. In the current year, on March 5, a bomb planted in a mosque went off and killed 11 people and injured 44. The mosque was adjacent to the shrine of Akhun Panju Baba. This was followed by two separate blasts, on May 4 and May 14, when militants blew up the Government High School in Azakhel Payan and Government High School Wattar. On June 6, 2011, at least 18 people were killed, 40 injured on Sunday when a bomb exploded in a bakery.

    The religious minorities have been feeling threatened after the rising tide of extremism in Pakistan generally. In fact, there have been blatant attacks on them in 2009. Among these attacks, the ones against the Christian community were high especially in areas that are dominated by insurgents. Thousands of Christians from the Swat Valley, Peshawar, Mardan, Nowshera and FATA took place following threats to them to convert to Islam or face death. Many of them took refuge with their relatives in Punjab and Sindh provinces and faced immense hardships as the government could not provide adequate protection. Hindu community was not exception too as on July 01, 2005, infuriated mob burned a Hindu temple over the alleged desecration of Holy Quran by a Christian named Yousaf Massih. After the attacks, the Hindu community fled the district leaving their houses and businesses behind.

    According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, its population was 874,373 out of which 227030 was urban and 647343 rural. The Muslim population of the district is 99 percent while the rest 0.5 percent are Christian 0.3 percent Ahmadis and Hindus constitutes 0.1 percent of the total population.

    Nowshera comprises of several tribes including Khattak, Yousafzai, Afridi and Kaka Khel. Main spoken languages of the district are Pushto and Hindko. Literacy rate in Noshera is 89 percent. Five MPs represent it in the Provincial and two in the National Assembly. Bomb blasts, kidnapping, harassment and violence against women are common crimes committed in the district.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nowshera_District
  • http://nowshera.com/news/?category_name=lawandorder
  • http://centralasiaonline.com/cocoon/caii/xhtml/en_GB/features/caii/features/pakistan/2010/08/24/feature-03
  • http://www.thenews.com.pk/NewsDetail.aspx?ID=9191
  • http://www.paktribune.com/news/print.php?id=111190
  • http://freedomcenterstudents.org/2010/03/pakistan-violent-attacks-on-religious-minorities-increased-in-2009-government-did-nothing/
  • http://www.khyberpakhtunkhwa.gov.pk/Departments/BOS/nwfpdev-statis-popu-tab-161.php
  • Extremism Watch, Jinnah Institute, 2011

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    7-     Charsadda

    Charsadda district is located in the west of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Peace and harmony are denied commodities in this district also.

    Charsadda is the birthplace of the non-violence movement in the region which was led by Bacha Khan. However, it has seen several suicide bombings. Even the head of Awami National Party (the flag bearers of Bacha Khan) Asfandyar Wali Khan narrowly escaped a suicide attack in 2009.

    In 2007, Charsadda had gone into the control of militants. Their prime targets were music shops, women and education institutions. Before this, indications of rising militancy had already started showing up. For example, on April 28, 2005, militants killed at least 32 people and injured many more in a suicide attack in the town. Later, in different parts of Charsadda, militants started blowing up music shops. Shopkeepers received warnings not to allow female customers into their shops. To strike fear and to wreak vengeance on the state of Pakistan, militants killed 26 people, including three women and six children, and injured 104 others with a car bomb blast in Tehsil Bazaar near the Farooq-e-Azam Chowk.

    The current situation explains however that the gory past of Charsadda has not fully been gone in real spirit of the sense. For example, on February 24, 2011, militants blew up a girls’ government primary school in the Mian Essa Khail village near Shabqadar in Charsadda. Three days after this, another outfit bombed a government primary school in Zahir Shah Koroona. About two weeks before this, militants bombed a local radio station. The worst of all attacks took place on May 14th morning outside of the Frontier Constabulary training center when Taliban killed 82 and injured about 200 in a suicide attack. This deadliest attack occurred within moments at around 6:00 am when newly-trained paramilitary cadets, dressed in civilian clothes, were getting into buses for a 10-day leave after completing their six months training at the facility.

    Charsadda is administratively subdivided into two Tehsils that comprise on 46 Union Councils. It is bounded by Malakand District on the north, Mardan district on the east, Nowshera and Peshawar districts on the south and the Mohmand Agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas on the west. The district’s total population, as per 1998’s census, is 1022364 out of which rural 829513 is rural and 192851 urban. The overall literacy rate is 43 percent. Majority of its residents are Pashtun. Its tribes include Muhammad Zai, Yusuf Zai, Umar Zai and others. A total of six MPs represent the district in the Provincial and two in the National Assembly of Pakistan.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charsadda_District
  • http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/16-Apr-2009/Bomber-strikes-Charsadda-post
  • www.smeda.org/main.php
  • http://www.topix.com/forum/pk/charsadda/T2H4HH7E5EN60UKOH
  • http://tribune.com.pk/story/167870/bombs-targets-army-recruits-in-charsadda70-dead/
  • http://www.khyberpakhtunkhwa.gov.pk/Departments/BOS/nwfpdev-statis-popu-tab-161.php

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    8-     Chitral

    Chitral district is surrounded by Afghanistan, central Asian states, Northern areas of Gilgit and china linked with Dir and Swat from the south side. It is mostly inhabited by Chitrali people, however some Pushtoon live in the southern areas. It is one of the largest districts of KP. Sunni are 69 percent, Ismalia 30 percent and 1 percent are Kalash. Its literacy rate is 40.30 percent. Chitralis belong to different cultures and more than 14 languages are spoken in the district. This very diversity in fact attracted IFT to implement the project “Women Action for Peace and Non-Violence” in this district.

    Ismailis control the upper part of Chitral. They are better educated and liberal and do lot of community servicing. This is why we observe a contrast of approach and living between both the Ismailis and Sunnis. But at the same time, it is also worth mentioning that the rate of suicide among women is high here. This is primarily because of depression. Depression is triggered due to the psychological and educational mismatches which are usually coerced upon women by their parents.

    Chitral’s location, among the rugged Hindukush, mountains keeps it cut off from rest of the country for half of the year in winter. Inside the valley, road infrastructure, healthcare and educational facilities become almost non-existent in winters. The very sharp divide of rural urban, Sunnis and Non-Sunnis, Pashtuns and Non-Pushtoons make it a culturally rich as well as a potentially dangerous place. However, it has so far remained peaceful despite occasional blasts. Recently, on May 3, 2011, a group of terrorists from Nooristan province of Afghanistan, infiltrated into Ursoon village here and attacked a check post at Pita Soon. They killed an official of border police and kidnapped four constables. The militants started indiscriminate firing with heavy weapons.

    Chitral has two Tehsils. Its population, according to the census of Pakistan 1998, is 318,689 out of which 30,622 urban and 288,067 is rural. It is the area of the greatest linguistic diversity in the world. Khowar is the dominant language. Since many of these languages have no script therefore, they are usually written in Urdu or Persian. Most prominent tribes in the district are Khow and Kalash. Two MPs represent the district in the Provincial and one in the National Assembly of Pakistan.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitral_District
  • http://www.hunzatimes.com/chitral-demands-share-in-rs50bn-malakand-fund
  • http://www.chitraltimes.com/english08/newsdetail221ba.htm
  • http://archives.dawn.com/2008/12/02/local12.htm
  • http://reshun.blogspot.com/p/news.html
  • http://www.smeda.org/main.php?id=369
  • http://websitepakistan.com/chitral/chitral6.htm
  • http://attaonline.20m.com/custom.html

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    Balochistan

    Balochistan is the largest province (by area) of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44 percent of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 census, Balochistan had a population of roughly 6.6 million. Its total literacy rate is 34 percent. Literacy among males is 39 percent while for females this number is 27 percent. Its neighboring regions are Iran to the west and Afghanistan to the north. To the south lies the Arabian Sea. The main spoken languages in the province are Balochi, Brahui, Pashto and Urdu.

    Politically, Balochistan has been a troubled region. Back in 1948, Khan of Kalat and two upper and lower houses refused to accede it to Pakistan, but later it became part of this country. Later, under the rule of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, crushed uprising between 1973 and 1977. Apart from this debate, the multifold crises for women and children are evident. For example, it is largely a very conservative area with respect to women and this character has its own implications in terms of patriarchal patronage and violence.

    Then pervasive insecurity has its implications when men are active part of violence and/or mere victims. The culture of dependence rolls down on women a massive social and economic pressure in such circumstances. Children also suffer and pay for the price of insecurity and violence. According to the United Nations December 2006 estimates, there were 84,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Balochistan, of which 26,000 were women and 33,000 were children. The provincial officials did not provide any relief and standard shelter to the Baloch IDPs.

    According to a report, due to total blockade of Marri and Bugti areas resulting of the conflict, about 8,000 to 10,000 allegedly died due to exodus, malnourishment, lack of shelter and disease. They had been reportedly living in deplorable conditions in the makeshift camps with no access to potable water, food, and other basic necessities. No medical facilities, electricity or even fuel to run water pumps was provided to these areas. Of course, state of Pakistan cannot be absolved of its responsibility to function benevolently and protect its people. This is certainly news for many people that there is not a single women police station in Balochistan.

    Year 2008 was important for women’s perspective in Balochistan. For example, it was the year when the most horrifying incident occurred. In district Naseerabad, five women were allegedly buried alive by tribal elders in the name of honour. The then Federal Minister Mir Israrullah Zehri and Senate Deputy Speaker Jan Muhammad Jamli defended the incident on the Senate floor and called it “a part of Baloch traditions” and the government failed to expose the culprits and the motives behind the killings. The Naseerabad killings still remain a mystery. It is also for the record that in the same year around 600 cases of violence against women were reported. Those included the murder of 89 women in the first nine months of the year. At least 115 women were murdered in cases of honour killing. The reported cases also included 255 incidents of women being subjected to domestic violence.

    In fact, Balochis are unwilling to discuss the violence as a majority of them justifies such acts in the name of tradition. The cases remain unreported in media because of inaccessibility of the area as well as the dominance of men in society who believe the publication of reports of violence against women amounts to the disrepute of their respective tribes. Within Balochistan and Balochis, there are instances of prolonged animosity and violence. There are disagreements and rivalries between various tribes and sub-tribes. The feuds seem to be most marked in the Bugti area. HRCP in its fact-finding report in 2005 expressed concern over accounts of abuses by tribal ‘sardars’, including allegations that some of them maintained private jails, had subjected opponents to deliberate humiliation and had been involved in various criminal acts. Women mostly bear the brunt of such acts.

    Besides the pervasive insecurity in which women and children face consequences, there are also some other factors that account for women’s disempowerment in the province. For example, they have no access to enabling opportunities required for the empowerment of women in any modern and civilized society. Due to acute poverty, lack of medical facilities and trained personnel, and extremely poor infrastructure and communication resources, women are the prime victims of systematic and institutionalized discrimination.

    District Selection Indicators
    Balochistan Quetta Sibi Pishin
    Accessibility & Availability of Civil Structure Y Y Y
    Presence of UN Women's & WPP Partners Y Y N
    Potential Risk/Evidence of Ethnic & Religious Conflict Y Y Y
    History/Cases of SGBV Y Y Y
    IFT's Links Y Y Y
    Rich-Poor Disparity Factor Y Y Y

    According to the 2008 Pakistan Statistical Year Book, households whose primary language is Balochi represent 40 percent of Balochistan’s population while 20 percent of households speak Brahvi and up to 25 percent speaks Pashtu. The Provincial Assembly of Balochistan comprises 65 seats of which 4 percent are reserved for non-Muslims and 16 percent for women only. For administrative purposes, the province is subdivided into 30 districts. Quetta is the provincial capital. Almost every kind of crime is committed in the province, especially the target killing. Despite the presence of paramilitary forces with their extended powers for years in Balochistan, killings continue to increase. Experts say the trend in Balochistan is an interesting study to gauge how effective paramilitary forces can be in controlling crime and the general law and order situation in places like Karachi, where there is debate over whether more power and resources should be given to the Pakistan Rangers as police fails to do the job.

    According to Balochistan police records, there were 256 incidents of targeting in Balochistan in 2009 that killed 200 people and injured 387. In 2010, 231 incidents were reported that killed 255 and injured 498. In the first three months of 2011, at least 39 incidents have occurred, which killed 38 and injured 66. No target killings incidents, except for one or two, are reported in the province’s Pashtun-dominated areas, including Musakhel, Zhob, Loralai, Ziarat, Pishin, Harnai and Sibi. This claim was confirmed by Pakhtunkhwa Awami Milli Party’s senior leader Abdul Rahim Khan Mandokhel. Most target killing and terrorism incidents are reported in the districts of Quetta, Mastung, Bolan, Noshki, Kalat, Khuzdar, Kech, Gwadar, Lasbela and Panjgur. However, practically speaking, most parts of Balochistan are almost no-go areas for Punjabis and other ethnic identities since killing of Nawab Akbar Bugti. The civil society organizations, especially Non-Balochis, also face a lot of problems in working there. Whereas this particular scenario demands a judicious approach in making decisions to work there, equally important is to engage the administration and youth, both male and female, for giving confidence and a sense of peaceful engagement to them so that generations don’t have to suffer and Pakistan becomes a peaceful place.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balochistan,_Pakistan
  • http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Balochistan,-five-girls-buried-alive-for-honor-crimes-13114.html
  • http://gmcmissing.wordpress.com/2009/01/05/violence-against-women-in-balochistan-increased-in-2008/
  • http://www.balochistannationalparty.org/jmb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=86:the-balochistan-truth&catid=38:sanaullah-baloch
  • http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007%5C07%5C11%5Cstory_11-7-2007_pg7_13
  • http://www.wichaar.com/news/288/ARTICLE/24059/2011-02-10.html
  • http://www.google.com.pk/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=crimes+in+balochistan
  • http://www.theresearchers.org/PGF/2011/April2011.pdf
  • http://www.balochistan.gov.pk/departments/mics/MICS-4-Web/4-1-Results-Literacy%20&%20Education.pdf

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    1-     Quetta

    Quetta is the provincial capital of Balochistan. The city in general is dominated by Pashtun people followed by Baloch and Brahuis people with Hazaras, Punjabi and others as the minority groups. Pashto is the main language spoken throughout the city.

    Years back, Quetta was a peaceful city where life was running very smoothly. Different ethnic and religious minorities coexisted in friendlier manner because it is part of the province where religious vigilantes were never in power. Since it is city-center, people across Balochistan thronged here for business and entertainment purposes, on all important occasions. However, now the situation has totally changed. Bomb blasts and target killings have overshadowed the hustle and bustle of the city. There is hardly any place or any ethnic and religious identity which hasn’t been target in recent times. Religious places, political gatherings, schools, important and ordinary people, all of them are targets of invisible forces. Among the recent incidents is killing of eight people when militants sprayed bullets and fired rockets at people walking in a local public park adjacent to Hazara Town, Quetta. The attack that took place on May 6 targeted Shia minority. The Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, a sectarian militant group that is anti-Shia, claimed responsibility for the attack. Similarly, in September 2010, Taliban struck at religious Shiites, killing 54 of them, in a car bombing at a protest in Quetta. However, of strategically of worst consequences is that educated class is the prime target here. This class includes politicians, doctors, engineers, government officers, teachers, scholars, professors and students. The idea is to eliminate knowledge and then breed a generation who has nothing to do but serve as mercenaries. Apparently, this is religious extremists and their handlers who are eliminating learned class for their own motives, making benefit of the differences between establishment and Balochis.

    Actually, there were only a very few examples of religious extremism in Balochistan. However, since recently, that trend is seen going away. The response on the death of Osama Bin Laden in Quetta is a challenge for those who still believe otherwise. On the next day of Osama’s killing, on May 3, 2011, hundreds of zealots took to the streets to “pay homage” to Osama. Angry participants belonging to a religious party in Quetta, the capital of southwestern province Baluchistan, were led by “federal lawmaker” Maulawi Asmatullah. It was the first rally in Pakistan after the United States announced that bin Laden had been killed in an overnight commando mission in Pakistan. Organizers said between 1,000 and 1,200 people attended the rally. Instead of demanding inquiry of how US forces entered Pakistan and what Osama, the wanted person internationally, was doing here, worrisome is the fact that a powerful section of people in Quetta was idealizing him. This surge of extremism obviously has a spillover effect on women, in houses where they have to beset religious vigilantes (brothers, fathers, sons, etc.) and then suffer when a crisis opens up in terms of clashes in the city. In fact it will serve the establishment very little in terms of intimidating USA but will be of immense damage to Pakistan in the long run. If Afghan war is still following Pakistan, so will Balochistan follow Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi if extremism is unchecked and women are not part of policy making.

    According to the estimates in 2008, the Quetta’s’ population is 1.4 million. About 99 percent of the people are Muslims and majority of them is Sunni sect followed by Shiites most of whom are the Hazaras. Christian, Hindu, and Sikh population are the other people living in the city.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quetta_District
  • http://www.quetta.gov.pk/about.htm
  • http://www.sleekarticles.com/the-running-situation-of-my-burning-city-quetta/
  • http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2010/09/taliban_kill_48_in_a.php
  • http://tribune.com.pk/story/160467/hundreds-join-quetta-rally-to-honour-bin-laden/
  • http://tribune.com.pk/story/31582/56-case-of-violence-against-women-in-6-months/

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    2-     Sibi

    Sibi district has two sub-divisions which are further organized into Tehsils and sub-tehsils. Its population according to the 1998 census is 210,000. Urban and Rural population is 32 and 68 percent respectively. Male population is 53.95 percent and females 46.05 percent. This is obviously a violation of the natural male-female ratio. Needless to mention that several factors account for this imbalance.

    Sibi being part of Balochistan inherits its inimical cultural values, from women’s rights angle. It has been much in the press and the attention of media and NGOs for social injustices as well as heinous crimes. On 26 April, 2001, for example, at least 15 passengers were burned to death and several others were injured 25 when militants torched a Quetta-bound bus in the Pirak area of Sibi at the time of its pull-over midway. Among the deceased eight were women and five children who could not make out. Sibi also featured central in 2010 when floods affected it badly. It ranked among the top districts where relief and rehabilitation efforts were badly required.

    In rural areas of Sibi, the traditional institution of communal cooperation in socio-economic spheres is still in practice among all ethnic groups, but not as much as half a century ago. It is also found in the urban settlements Sibi town and Harnai town, where a number of social welfare organizations are in operation. In the rural areas, there are no formal community based organizations. Instead, communal cooperation is linked to specific occasions or situations, and when these arise, the community becomes active.

    Ninety percent of the population is Muslim and 10 percent were Hindus. Majority of the population are Baloch tribes. At present, total area of Sibi district is 6223 square kilometers. Sibi has been a meeting point for Baluch Chiefs. Literacy ratio of both sexes of the district is 25.47 percent as per the 1998 census. It is flood effected and post conflict area. Generally committed crimes in the district are Kidnapping, abduction, murder and violence against women.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sibi_District
  • http://centralasiaonline.com/cocoon/caii/xhtml/en_GB/newsbriefs/caii/newsbriefs/2011/04/26/newsbrief-02
  • http://www.pakwatan.com/travel_detail.php?id=48
  • http://www.paiman.org.pk/resources/DHPs/District%20Health%20Profile%20Sibi.pdf
  • http://www.pakresponse.info/assessments/UN_Interagency_Monitoring_and_Assessment_Mission_Sibi_Balochistan_31July.pdf

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    3-     Pishin

    Pishin was a part of Quetta Pishin district. It is the biggest Pashtun tribe in Balochistan. In 1975, it was separated from Quetta for administrative reasons.

    Pishin inhabits several tribes but of social influence there at least four including Tareen (including Achakzai), Kakar and Syed. Most of the people of Pishin District are from Tareen tribe.

    For law and order, Levies are responsible for this district. Different tribes sometimes clash. Women are indirect victims of such clashes.

    Pishin is administratively subdivided into four tehsils and a sub tehsil:

    • Barshore
    • Karezat
    • Pishin
    • Hurramzai
    • Sub tehsil Saranan

    Situation of security is slightly better in Pishin. However, poverty is very high. Generally, it is a conservative district.

    In 2008, earthquake hit Pishin measuring 5.2 on the Richter scale, affecting nearly 8,000 people directly. Since most of the area of this district is rural, and houses are mostly mud plastered, therefore the impact was immense. Women and children were affected the most on account of their social exclusion under the garb of tribal values.

    Pishin is basically a tribal and male dominated society. There is a tendency among the residents to conceal the actual number of females. Illiterate persons feel shy to report the exact number of baby girls due to psychological reasons. The statistics are not reliable because among other things the birth and death rates are not recorded properly.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pishin_District
  • http://forum.urduworld.com/f109/pishin-balochistan-pakistan-312489/
  • http://www.desiakhbar.com/cwspa/
  • http://un.org.pk/profiles/pishin.htm

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    Sindh

    Sindh is one of the provinces of Pakistan and historically a home to the Sindhi people . It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Population of this province in 2009 was estimated to be 51,337,129 with 57 % living in urban and 42 % in rural areas.

    The dark side of 'honor'

    “What is there to my body?… Is it studded with diamonds or pearls? My brother’s eyes forever follow me. My father’s gaze guards me all the time, stern, angry…. Then why do they make me labour in the fields? Why don’t they do all the work by themselves? We, the women, work in the fields all day long, bear the heat and the sun, sweat and toil and we tremble all day long, not knowing who may cast a look upon us. We stand accused and condemned as kari and murdered”.

    A thirteen-year-old girl from a village in Sindh, Quoted in Attiya Dawood, ‘Karo kari: A Question of Honour, but Whose Honour?’ in Feminista, 2 (3/4), April 1999.

    Sindh is said to be a resourceful province, yet the majority of its population lives in abject poverty and illiteracy. This is because the focus of the government`s spending is not directed towards the poor masses.

    After 2008 general elections, the Pakistan Peoples’ Party (PPP), which originated from Sindh, launched Benazir Income Support Program (BISP). Sindh is also the beneficiary province. Chairperson BISP, Ms. Farzana Raja, is of the opinion that the role of BISP has been historic in regard with poverty eradication. BISP consists of cash package of Rs. 3,000 every three months per family. Another similar historic program is Sasti Rooti (low cost bread) scheme in Punjab that vows to offset the impact of poverty by providing low cost bread/chapatti to poor citizens at 300 designated mechanical plants, for the population of more than 27,360,000 (38 % are poor in the population of roughly 72 million, with population density of ). Though it is only mechanical plant for over 91,000 people, but importantly both programs respectively share immense emotional attachment of the party leaders, i.e., PPP and PMLN, and speak about their vision. More than 150 billion Pak rupees are accrued on these programs accumulatively annually.

    Sindh has been in focus because of politics, business and insecurity. The rural Sindh is totally deprived. It is run by the local land lords some of whom reported to run their own private jails to punish the tenants when they fail to act according to the wishes of their masters. There are hundreds of private jails in Sindh, Pakistan, which were built by landlords with the help of local police. They have also political support from different parties. There are some 1.8 million landless agricultural workers (haris) in five districts of Sindh Province including Thatta, Dadu, Badin, Mirpurkhas and Umerkot. Most of these people are in debt bondage.

    While bonded Labour exists throughout Sindh Province, the majority of those bonded in the north belong to the Muslim majority, while most of the bonded agricultural labourers in southern Sindh Province belong to Dalit (untouchable – of the Hindu community) and to tribal communities who have migrated from the drought-prone area of Tharparkar desert. Poverty and starvation forces communities to accept the landlords' cash advances and to be available for work from dawn to dusk. Bonded labourers may be detained or guarded to stop them escaping and in these situations of total ownership rape of women is not uncommon. In this sense, Sindh is a province where different froms of gross human rights violations take place.

    Overall province literacy rate in Sindh province 2009 is 59 percent; half of the population is urban dwellers. Sindhi Muslims are the largest population in the province, but Sindh is also home to 93% of Pakistan's Hindus, and smaller groups of Christians, Parsis or Zoroastrians and a tiny Jewish community can also be found in the province. The province is divided on 23 districts. The main language spoken is Sindhi. Sindh is located on the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west.Sindh has the 2nd highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.628.. There are several ethnic communities live Mohajirs, Pashtuns, Baloch, Sindhi, Makrani, Punjabi as well as a large number of immigrants from neighbouring countries. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century.

    According to Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2008, Sindhi-speaking households make up 59.7% of Sindh's population; Urdu 21.1%; Punjabi 7.0%; Pashto 4.2%; Balochi 2.1%; Saraiki 1.0% and other languages 4.9%. The total number of seats for Sindh Assembly is 168.

    District Selection Indicators
    Sindh Hyderabad Karachi Khairpur
    Accessibility & Availability of Civil Structure Y Y Y
    Presence of UN Women's & WPP Partners Y Y Y
    Potential Risk/Evidence of Ethnic & Religious Conflict Y Y Y
    History/Cases of SGBV Y Y Y
    IFT's Links Y Y Y
    Rich-Poor Disparity Factor Y Y Y

    Data Sources

  • http://www.bhs.org.pk/About%20Sindh.html
  • http://www.cssforum.com.pk/general/news-articles/23468-economy-karachi.html
  • http://www.bisp.gov.pk/
  • http://www.farzanaraja.com/images/news/PressConference-26.pdf
  • http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/05/sasti-roti-scheme-to-spread-its-wings/
  • http://www.pakistanpaedia.com/provinces/punjab/punjab.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punjab,_Pakistan
  • http://pakistanhindupost.blogspot.com/2011/03/private-jails-in-pakistan-by-aziz.html
  • http://www.samaa.tv/newsdetail.aspx?ID=30542
  • http://archives.dawn.com/archives/53523
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Pakistan
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindh
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provincial_Assembly_of_Sindh
  • http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010%5C01%5C12%5Cstory_12-1-2010_pg3_1
  • http://pakistancriminalrecords.com/2011/01/11/862-cases-of-violence-against-women-reported-in-2hcy10/

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    1-     Hyderabad

    District Hyderabad as per 1998 census had a total of 2,891,488 populations which is divided as 1,447,957 in urban 1,392,696 in rural areas.

    Hyderabad shares its traits with rest of the parts of Pakistan with respect of violence against women and other crimes.

    According to the data of a help line – set up for women survivors of violence, abuse and exploitation in interior Sindh in 2008 by Madadgaar, as many as in 65 cases of mental torture and 11 cases of dispute over child custody were recorded here. Similarly, 46 cases of forced prostitution were recorded in the district. As many as 29 cases of forced marriage/child marriage/Jirga and 23 cases of Khulla were reported at the center. The cases of dispute over property involving women were 15 and of women’s trafficking were 4. In 2009, as many as 110 women reported they received threats and 19 launched complaint of physical abuse. In the same year, 2 cases of gang rape were also reported at the center. There were at least 20 different cases registered of sexual harassment whereas 4 of harassment at workplace. Cases of sexual harassment by family members were reported to be 11 and 4 by the police. As many as 18 women launched compliant of illegal confinement in the same year. About 8 cases were reported of Karo Kari. One case of burnt was reported from Hyderabad. At least seven cases were also registered against Vani.

    Literacy rate for males in Hyderabad is 52.63 % and 34.97 % for females. Majority of the population (86 %) are Muslims, 12 % Hindus, 1.75 % Christian and 0.13 percent are Ahmadies.

    Languages spoken at Hyderabad are Urdu 65 %, Sindhi 20 %, Punjabi 4, Pashto 1.77, Balochi 0.96 Seraiki 0.96, and others 3.07 %. Six elected members represent the district in the National Assembly. Rioters and protesters normally keep the city hostage and forceful shutter down strikes and aerial firing are very common in the district. Dacoities, land grabbing, abduction, target killing and bomb blasts are among the rest of crimes committed here.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyderabad_District,_Pakistan
  • http://www.sindh.gov.pk/dpt/PopulationDev/hyd.htm
  • http://viewstonews.com/index.php/violence-against-women-on-rise-in-interior-sindh-pakistan/pakistan
  • http://sindhdevelopmentinstitute.blogspot.com/2005/03/hyderabad-economic-profile.html
  • http://www.na.gov.pk/sindh.html
  • http://pakistancriminalrecords.com/tag/hyderabad/page/3/
  • http://www.stophonourkillings.com/?q=taxonomy/term/168&page=1

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    2-     Khairpur

    Khairpur district is located in northern Sindh and is bounded on the east by India. It is has eight Tehsils. According to the 1998 census, Khairpur’s population was 1,546,587 out of which 52 % were males and 48 % females, which is defiance towards the natural order.

    IFT needs to select Khairpur for its program “Women Action for Peace and Non-Violence” on accounts of the prevailing insensitivity and crimes towards women. The incidents must not only be shame for Pakistani citizens but also a source of great concern for the entire justice system. Just for testing the water, a case of 16 years girl child enough. This girl was kidnapped for ransom, along with her brother, on October 14, 2010, by a group of criminals involved in land-grabbing, who were reportedly connected to the police. She was gang raped repeatedly during a period lasting almost one month. The girl’s father tried to register a complaint concerning the gang rape to the police station, Khairpur Mirs, but the police refused to record the gang rape in their report. He then filed an application in the Session court of Khairpur Mirs who ordered the police to file FIR concerning her abduction and rape. Following untiring efforts by the girl’s father, the police eventually arrested two persons. However, they were released within two hours. This matter went up to the then Interior Minister Zulfiqar Mirza who pledged before the Sindh provincial that he would take up the case but no action from his ministry was taken. The family of the victims faced threats from the alleged perpetrators as well as members of the police to get them to drop the case – this includes threatening to subject the family’s other two children with rape too. What happened next is unknown because of any absence of media follow-up.

    In another case, which shows the dangers and difficulties encountered by rape victims’ in Khairpur, to seek justice, a female government health worker was allegedly raped by a notorious gangster, with the help of two police informants, on December 9, 2010. An FIR was only lodged by the police five days after the rape, in order to allow time to pass, destroying the physical evidence of rape. The police, instead of filing a rape case, filed a case of attempted rape in order to shield the perpetrators. While the alleged rapist has been arrested for attempted rape, the police informants who allegedly restrained and beat the victim continue to enjoy protection by the police. High ranking police officers have reportedly been coercing the victim into settling the case out of court. It is understood that the alleged perpetrator of this rape had been harassing the victim since 2009 and that she had reported this to the police, but they had told her to come back if and when the crime of rape had been committed, as they could not do anything until then.

    Literacy rate here in this district is 35.5 percent (6.69 percent for males and 19.77 percent for females). Different tribes reside in the district and Sindhi is the language of 95 percent of its people. It contains 96 percent Muslims 2 percent Hindus. The crime trafficking of disables person, kidnapping, honor killing.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khairpur_District
  • http://www.alrc.net/doc/mainfile.php/hrc17/675/
  • http://www.paiman.org.pk/resources/DHPs/District%20Health%20Profile%20Khairpur.pdf
  • http://www.sindh.gov.pk/dpt/PopulationDev/hyd.htm
  • http://www.humanrights.asia/news/forwarded-news/AHRC-FAT-011-2011
  • http://www.stophonourkillings.com/?q=taxonomy/term/168&page=1
  • http://search.onepakistan.com/pk/search/page-2__limit-10__engine-Onepakistan%20google__query-district+khairpur+sindh+pakistan.html

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    3-     Karachi

    Karachi is capital of the province Sindh and the main business hub of Pakistan. According to some estimates, it contributes 53 % share in the total collections of the FBR.

    Law and order of this city has been of great concern since three decades. The defining characteristic of the history of Karachi's ethnic-slash-political violence is its complexity. Unlike the one-off reaction to Benazir's death or the terrorist attacks here against foreigners in 2002, the city's indigenous carnage - which has flared up repeatedly since the 1980s - is perhaps the most confounding problem confronting Pakistan's government today. This city is one of migrants, where Sindhis, Pashtuns, Balochis and Muhajirs - Urdu-speakers arriving from India after 1947 - have uneasily lived in localities that are separated along ethnic lines but crammed next to each other in the 17-million-strong megalopolis. To compete for land, jobs, resources and votes, these groups have formed, or decided to support, rival political parties, which have in turn exploited these ethnic tensions to win supporters. But thrown into this mix are also criminal gangs who could not possibly operate so brazenly without the patronage, or at least the blessings, of political parties. Clearly protected, they run land, drug, transport, weapons and extortion rackets and keep rival ethnic groups out of their respective localities.

    But aside this all, Karachi is also a city of surprises. It is one of the cities with more literate people live. There are several civil society organizations working here for different humane objectives. It is a city that continues to serve as the financial and commercial capital of Pakistan. It actually accounts for a lion's share of Pakistan's revenue generation. It generates approximately 53.38% of the total collections of the Federal Board of Revenue, out of which 53.33% are customs duty and sales tax on imports. Karachi produces about 30 percent of value added in large scale manufacturing and 25% of the GDP of Pakistan. In February 2007, the World Bank identified Karachi as the most business-friendly city in Pakistan.

    Karachi is the largest district. It is also world’s largest cities in terms of population, the 13th largest urban agglomeration, and the 4th largest metropolitan area in the worlds. The city-district of Karachi is structured as a three-tier federation, with the two lower tiers composed of 18 towns and 178 union councils.

    Karachi is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the south and the Lasbela district of Balochistan to the west. It is divided into two parts, the hilly area in the north and west and an undulating plain and coastal area in the south-east. According to latest estimates, its population now exceeds 120 million which 53 percent are male and 46 percent are females.

    Overall literacy rate in Karachi is 67.42 percent. Literacy among males is 57 percent and 42 percent among the females. The majority of the population (96 percent) is Muslim. Twenty members in the National Assembly represent the district. The crime committed in the district includes Suicides, murder, target killing, abduction, bomb blasts and rapes.

    Data Sources

  • http://afpak.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2010/08/09/karachis_complex_culture_of_violence
  • http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Karachi.pdf
  • http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/sindh/datasheet/karachi_incident.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karachi
  • http://www.na.gov.pk/sindh.html
  • http://www.stophonourkillings.com/?q=taxonomy/term/168&page=1

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    Azad Jammu and Kashmir - Muzaffarabad

    Azad Jammu and Kashmir is the southern most political entity within the Pakistani-administered area. It borders the present-day Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir to the east. It is largely a rural area in its cultural manifestation.

    Since majority of the people in AJK are conservative and have lesser opportunities therefore women’ status, in all respects, here in the State is in question. A part of Kashmir for being a disputed territory is a bone of contention between Pakistan and India and for this reason AJK is a hometown of several freedom movements and groups that, in this particular context, makes it a volatile place for women and children from the point of view of violence. Similarly, whenever there is a cross fire between India and Pakistan, Kashmiris have to run for their own safety and in this situation again the women and children, particularly those living near border areas, are vulnerable. During crossfire incidents even people had to take refuge at places where they are exposed to hunger, disease and sexual violence.

    According to the 1998 census, the state of Azad Jammu & Kashmir had a population of 2.973 million, which is estimated to be grown to 3.5 million in 2006. The Rural-Urban population ratio is 88 and 12 percent respectively. Literacy rate which was 55 percent in 1998 has now risen to 60 percent. AJK is predominantly Muslim and majority of its population is culturally, linguistically, and ethnically related to the people of northern Punjab. Languages spoken are Pahari, Gojri, Dogri, Potohari, Urdu, Kashmiri, Pashto and Punjabi. AJK has its own legislative assembly comprising 41 directly and 8 indirectly elected members. Azad Kashmir is divided into two divisions and eight administrative districts with Muzaffarabad as its capital.

    Muzaffarabad is situated at the confluence of the Jhelum & Neelum Rivers. The district is bounded to Pakistan in the west and to Kupwara and Baramulla districts that comes under Indian occupied Kashmir. This context provides for the basis of intervention of IFT’s “Women Action for Peace and Non-Violence” project.

    District Selection Indicators
    Muzaffarabad Y/N
    Accessibility & Availability of Civil Structure Y
    Presence of UN Women's & WPP Partners Y
    Potential Risk/Evidence of Ethnic & Religious Conflict Y
    History/Cases of SGBV Y
    IFT's Links Y
    Rich-Poor Disparity Factor Y

    It is a blend of varied culture and languages. Being the capital of the state it has all the necessary facilities of life. The total population of the district according to the 1998 census was 725,000. The district is administratively subdivided into three Tehsils and 51 Union Councils. The ethnic groups in the district include Gujjar, Rajput, Sudhan, Jatt, Khawajatt. A large number of Hindkows and smaller scattered number of ethnic Kashimris are found in the capital. Urdu, Pothorahai and Hindko, are spoken in the district. Major crimes committed in the district include murder, robbery, abduction and narcotics.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azad_Kashmir
  • http://www.hrw.org/en/node/11156/section/7
  • http://www.pndajk.gov.pk/glance.asp
  • http://www.khyberwatch.com/forums/showthread.php?4763-Pakistan-Crime-Statistics
  • http://www.dawn.com/2011/02/21/over-11000-cases-of-violence-against-women-registered-since-2009.html
  • http://www. Sub-division / muzaffarabadak.com/mzddist03.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muzaffarabad_District
  • http://www.scribd.com/doc/47249799/district-muzaffarabad-presentation
  • http://police.ajk.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=58&Itemid=85

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    Gilgit Baltistan - Gilgit

    Gilgit Baltistan (GB) is a newly born province of Pakistan measuring an area of 72,496 Square kilometers and inhabiting about 1.4 million people. Approximately 14 percent population of the province is urban.

    Gilgit is GB’s Capital City. Crime rate in GB is high owing to several factors, including sectarian divide of Shiites and Sunnis and its brutal manifestations. This context provides for the basis of intervention of IFT’s “Women Action for Peace and Non-Violence” project.

    For centuries, people of Gilgit-Baltistan, professing various religions, co-existed in amicable conditions. However, as Pakistan’s politics progressed on sectarian basis in Zia-ul-Haq’s regime in the heart of the Punjab, its impact could be felt hundreds of miles up in the north. In the sequence of events, hundreds of people have already perished here. In 2008, for example, 18 people including the Director of the Agriculture Department of Gilgit were killed in Shia-Sunni clashes. Year 2009 saw more sectarian killings than the previous two years put together. It started in the middle of February when two Shias were killed in an attack on a van in Gilgit. When a leader of a banned anti-Shia group-Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP), Allama Ali Sher Hyderi was killed in Sindh, riots broke out in Gilgit leading to the closure of markets and heavy gun battle between Shias and a faction of Sunnis. In September the same year, two Sunni Pashtuns and three native Shias were killed in Gilgit while a bus packed with Shia passengers coming from Baltistan was torched, causing several casualties. The Education Minister of Gilgit – Baltistan, Ali Madad Sher, quoted the Inspector General of GB Police in 2010 as saying that Gilgit was the most crime infested part of the entire region. Out of 1,548 cases registered during 2010 across the seven districts of GB, 750 took place in Gilgit District. The IGP told participants of an All Parties Conference to resolve the deteriorating law and order situation. In the same conference, officials revealed that 99 people were arrested in various militancy-related cases and 51 accused were still at large.

    Presently GB is divided in seven administrative units (districts). According to NCHD-GB overall literacy rate of GB is 53 percent (projected) whereas female and male literacy rate is 41 and 64 percent respectively. As per estimates about 30 percent population of GB is living below poverty line.

    District Selection Indicators
    Gilgit Y/N
    Accessibility & Availability of Civil Structure Y
    Presence of UN Women's & WPP Partners Y
    Potential Risk/Evidence of Ethnic & Religious Conflict Y
    History/Cases of SGBV Y
    IFT's Links Y
    Rich-Poor Disparity Factor Y

    Gilgit borders Afghanistan’s Wakhan Corridor to the north, China to the east and Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast. Its administrative center is the city of Gilgit. Its population consists of many diverse linguistic, ethnic, and religious groups. The population of this area is a mixture of many ethnic groups. Urdu is the lingua franca of GB and Gilgit. It is understood by most of the inhabitants. Shina language (with several dialects) is the language of 60 percent. The Balti dialect, a sub-dialect of Ladakhi and part of the Tibetan languages group, is spoken by the entire population of Baltistan.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilgit-Baltistan
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilgit
  • http://pamirtimes.net/2011/01/21/50-of-gbs-total-crimes-are-taking-place-in-district-gilgit-igp/
  • http://www.idsa.in/idsastrategiccomments/TalibanizationofGilgitBaltistanandSectarianKillings_SHSering_191009

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    Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)

    The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) comprise of small administrative units in the northwest of Pakistan. These areas span between the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan in the south, and the neighboring country of Afghanistan. There are seven tribal agencies and six smaller frontier regions with considerable autonomy from the rest of Pakistan, in FATA. In this sense, these areas consist of Agencies (Tribal Districts) and F.Rs (Frontier Regions). These all are as following
    • Bajour Agency
    • Mohmand Agency
    • Khyber Agency
    • F.R Peshawar
    • F.R Kohat
    • Orakzai Agency
    • Kurram Agency
    • F.R Bannu
    • North Waziristan Agency
    • F.R Lakki Marwat
    • F.R Tank
    • South Waziristan Agency
    District Selection Indicators
    FATA Y/N
    Accessibility & Availability of Civil Structure Y
    Presence of UN Women's & WPP Partners Y
    Potential Risk/Evidence of Ethnic & Religious Conflict Y
    History/Cases of SGBV Y
    IFT's Links Y
    Rich-Poor Disparity Factor Y

    The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to the east, Punjab and Balochistan to the south.

    The total population of the FATA was estimated in 2000 to be about 3,341,070 people, or roughly 2% of Pakistan's population. Only 3.1% of the population resides in established townships. It is thus the most rural administrative unit in Pakistan.

    People of FATA are represented both in the National Assembly of Pakistan by 12 independent Members of the National Assembly (MNAs) who are elected. They are represented in the Senate of Pakistan by eight senators, who are selected by these 12 MNAs. FATA has no representation in the Provincial Assembly of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

    The head of each tribal agency is the political agent who represents the President of Pakistan and is appointed by the Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The political agent wields extensive powers over the Tribesmen and can give punishment through Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR). The FCR in itself is an outdated set of rules prepared in 1901 and majority of its articles/sections are in violation of human rights.

    Since independence, FATA has not been brought at par with other parts of the country in terms of development process. The development initiatives and allocations in FATA followed a compartmentalized approach, concentrated around sectoral facilities and benefiting few influential and politically active sections. This neglecting approach deprived large segments of the FATA population from social uplift and economic empowerment, particularly women.

    The culture of FATA communities is strongly influenced by religious belief, particularly when it comes to honor whereas a woman is considered to be the center of honor for tribal people. Driven by local custom rather than a proper reading of religion, the victims of this honor culture are often women, who lose out. Women in FATA are vulnerable to economic poverty. A survey conducted by Shinwari (2008) revealed that majority of people of FATA believe that women should be allowed to get an education and access to better healthcare. But they are against the idea of women working or increasing their power. This illustrates that women don’t have any right of social mobility in FATA.

    FATA’s overall performance with respect to peace and diversity is not satisfactory. Whereas there is a general covert and overt hunt of militants going on in the region, sectarian clashes also do occur from time to time.

    In 2010 alone, at least three major incidents took place. The first incident took place on July 16 in Kurram Agency when Shia passengers were ambushed by assailants, claiming lives of 18 people and injuring 4. This was followed by another attack in the same agency, on July 29, killing all 10 people and setting their houses ablaze. On October 14, bomb blew up the shrine of Syed Muhammad Shah, at Khyber Agency. Fortunately, no one died in the incident.

    Sectarian violence in FATA started off in 1982, in Sadda in lower Kurram. Sixty-eight Shia families were forced to abandon their homes and had to take refuge in Parachinar. The matter was resolved through a jirga in 1990, but the decision was not implemented. In April and November 2007, the worst sectarian fighting in Kurram’s history took place. The Taliban had infiltrated the Sunni area and raised a local Taliban force. Their commander was under Baitullah Mehsud’s direct control. Forty villages were destroyed, and about 2,060 houses were set ablaze. More than 2,300 families were displaced and 95 places of worship were attacked. Landmines were planted in the fields. Snipers from both sects continuously fired on their opponent’s villages. The Thall-Parichinar road was closed for Shias, who in retaliation prevented the Sunnis of upper Kurram from travelling on the Parachinar road. Since then, sectarian strife breaks out every now and then. Security forces are also now target of the militants, thus making lives of the people further insecure.

    Khyber Agency

    Khyber Agency, named after Khyber Pass, is the corridor connecting the Asian sub-continent with the Central Asia through Afghanistan. The headquarters of the agency is located at Peshawar.

    The Khyber Agency in Pakistan has emerged in recent times as a centre of sectarian conflict - partially as a result of the spillover of deep-rooted differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims in the nearby Kurram Agency and partially as a reaction to efforts by hardline Sunni groups to establish their writ in the area. The Agency covers 2,576sqkm and has a population, according to official figures of 546,730. The area is seen by observers as well-suited to the purposes of criminals, drug mafias and most recently militants.

    Khyber’s tryst with militancy began in 2003 when a Taliban-style organization was set up by a local from the area, Haji Namdar, who after returning from Saudi Arabia, banned music and harshly enforced dress codes, which included head coverings for women and beards for men. It shocked many residents who had previously enjoyed a relatively relaxed religious lifestyle. Namdar, who established illegal FM radio stations and used the Tirah Valley area for attacks inside Afghanistan, paved the way for other militant forces in the area. Today, three major groups operate in Khyber. These are Lashkar-e-Islam, Ansar-ul-Islam and Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan. In 2009, the worst incident of Khyber Agency occurred when 76 persons, including 16 Security Force personnel, were killed and over 100 injured in a suicide attack on a mosque during the Friday congregation.

    Khyber Agency is a hilly tract with some narrow strips of valleys. It is the meeting place of the series of ranges of the Koh-e-Safaid, off-shoots of the mighty Hindukush mountains starting from the Pamir, the roof of the world. Lacha Ghar, Karagah Ghar, Surghar and Tor Ghar Morgah and Kalauch ranges are located in the agency.

    Khyber Agency is inhabited by four tribes viz Afridi, Shinwari, Mullagori and Shimani. They are armed warriors, who live in houses behind mud walls with a watch tower for each compound.

    Mohmand Agency

    Like other Pathans, these tribes have observed their own code of honor since time immemorial. The code imposes upon them three chief obligations: Nanawati to admit one as wrong and seek pardon from his enemy; Badal, or the old doctrine of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, and Melmastia, meaning hospitality to all.

    Data Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federally_Administered_Tribal_Areas
  • http://shafiqueahmed110.blogspot.com/2011/05/ending-kurrams-sectarian-strife.html
  • Women Rights in FATA Pakistan: A Critical Review of NGOs' Communication Strategies for Projects’ Implementation, SOA-3902, By Noor Akbar, May 2010
  • http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/Waziristan/datasheet/sectarianviolenceFATA2010.htm
  • http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010%5c07%5c10%5cstory_10-7-2010_pg1_1
  • http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=92012
  • http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=92847

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    Annex 1

    Province/Area Insan Foundation Trust Khwendo Kor Aurat Foundation ASR PAIMAN
    Annex 1
    Women and Peace Partners’ Selected Districts for Women and Peace Projects
    KPK
    Mardan
    D.I. Khan
    Charsadda
    Nowshera
    Chitral
    Karak
    Haripur
    Swat
    D.I. Khan
    Peshawar
    Mansehra
    Karak
    Swat
    Peshawar
    Abbotabad
    Swat
    Charsadda
    Peshawar
    D.I. Khan
    Mardan
    Punjab
    Lahore
    Faisalabad
    Kasur
    Bhakkar
    Chiniot
    Jhang
    Attock
     
    Attock
    Rawalpindi
    Lahore
    Kasur
    Sialkot
    Faisalabad
    Rahimyar Khan
    Bahawalpur
    Lahore
    Rawalpindi
    Chakwal
    Rajanpur
    Faisalabad
    Balochistan
    Quetta
    Sibi
    Pishin
     
    Sibi
    Quetta
    Quetta
    Kallat
    Sindh
    Karachi
    Hyderabad
    Khairpur
     
    Jaccababad
    Larkana
    Khairpur
    Thatta
    Hyderabad
    Hyderabad
    Thatta
    Matiari
    GB
    Gilgit
     
    Skardu
    Gilgit
    Skardu
    Gilgit
    AJK
    Muzaffarabad
     
    Mirpur
    Bagh
    Muzaffarabad
    Muzaffarabad
    FATA
    Mohmand
    Khyber
    Mohmand
    Khyber
     
    Mohmand

    Annex 2

    Women Action for Peace and Non-Violence (WAPN)
    Insan Foundation Trust
    DISTRICT PROFILE
    Sr#
    Districts
    Population (1998)
    Tehsils
    No. of UCs
    KP
    1
    Mardan
    1,460,100
    Mardan, Takht Bhai, Katlang
    75
    2
    Dera Ismail Khan
    852,995
    Dear Ismail Khan, Kulachi and Paharpur
    47
    3
    Swat
    1,257,602
    Matta and Swat
    65
    4
    Karak
    430,796
    Karak, Banda Daud Shah and Takht-e-Nasrati
    21
    5
    Haripur
    692,228
    Ghazi, Haripur
    45
    6
    Nowshera
    874,373
    Noshera, Khairabad and Pabi
    47
    7
    Charsadda
    1,022,364
    Charsadda and Tangi
    49
    8
    Chitral
    318,689
    Chitral and Mastuj
    24
    BALOCHISTAN
    1
    Quetta
    896,090
    Chilton and Zarghoon
    67
    2
    Sibi
    210,000
    Lehri and Sibi
    12
    3
    Pishin
    500,000
    Barshore, Karezot, Pishin, Huramzai
    38
    SINDH
    1
    Karachi
    9,856,318
    18 town (Baldia town, Bin Qasim town, Gadap town, Gulberg town, Gulshan town, Jamshed town, Keamari town, Korangi town, Landhi town, Liaqatabad town, Lyari town, Malir town, New Karachi town, North Nazimabad town, Orangi town, Saddar town, Shah Faisal town, SITE town)
    178
    2
    Hyderabad
    2,891,488
    Hyderabad city, Hyderabad Taluka Rural, Latifabad, Qasimabad
    52
    3
    Khairpur
    1,546,587
    Khairpur, Kingri, Kotdigi, Nara, Sobhodero, ThariMirwah
    76
    AJK
    1
    Muzaffarabad
    725,000
    Muzaffarabad, Hattian and Athmuqam
    51
    GB
    1
    Gilgit
    243,324
    Gilgit
    20
    PUNJAB
    1
    Lahore
    10 million
    Ravi Town, Shalimar Town, Wagah Town, Aziz Bhatti Town, Data Gunj Bakhsh Town, Gulberg Town, Samanabad Town, Iqbal Town, Nishtar Town and Lahore Cantonment
    150
    2
    Kasur
    2,376,000
    Chunian, Kasur, Pattoki and Kot Radha Kishen
    141
    3
    Faisalabad
    5.4 million
    Lyallpur Town, Madina Town, Jinnah Town, Iqbal Town, Chak Jhumra Town, Jaranwala Town Samundri Town and Tandlianwala Town
    289
    4
    Jhang
    3.5 million
    Ahmedpur Sial, Atharahazari, Shorkot and Jhang
    141
    5
    Attock
    1.58 million
    Attock, Fateh Jang, Jand, Hassan Abdal, Hazro and Pindi Gheb
    78
    6
    Bhakkar
    1.37 million
    Bhakkar, Darya Khan, Kaloor Kot and Mankera
    42
    7
    Chiniot
    1.5 million
    Bhawana, Lalian and Chiniot
    44